The 16 Most Common Dental Problems & Diseases You Should Know About

16 Tooth-Related Issues & Diseases You Must Know About

Dental care and dental health are essential for maintaining overall well-being, yet many people may not know the most common dental problems and diseases that can affect them. From cavities to gum disease, this article will explore the 16 most common dental issues and their causes so you can be better informed about your oral health!

Tooth decay

Tooth decay is one of the most common oral health problems.

It occurs when the outer layer of your tooth enamel breaks down and exposes the inner layer of your tooth, called dentin.

This can happen when the acids in plaque break down your tooth enamel. Plaque is a sticky film of bacteria that forms on your teeth. There are many reasons why tooth decay can occur.

The most common reason is poor oral hygiene. If you don’t brush and floss your teeth regularly, the plaque will build up and cause tooth decay.

Other reasons include:

  • Eating sugary or acidic foods
  • Dry mouth
  • Certain medical conditions

To prevent tooth decay, you should brush twice a day with quality toothpaste, floss daily, eat a balanced diet, and visit your dentist regularly for check-ups and cleanings.

Symptoms of tooth decay

Tooth decay is a serious problem that can lead to a number of health problems. If you suspect that you may have tooth decay, it is important to see a dentist as soon as possible.

There are a number of different symptoms associated with tooth decay, and these can vary depending on the severity of the problem. The most common symptom is pain, which can range from mild discomfort to severe pain.

This pain is often worse when eating or drinking, and can also be accompanied by sensitivity to hot or cold temperatures.

Other common symptoms include:

  • Visible holes or pits in the teeth
  • Dark spots on the teeth
  • Bad breath
  • Difficulty in chewing

If you experience any of these symptoms, it is important to see a dentist right away in order to avoid further damage to your teeth and mouth.


Gums disease

Gum disease is a condition that affects the gums and bones surrounding the teeth.

It is caused by the build-up of plaque, a sticky film of bacteria that forms on the teeth. Plaque can harden into tartar, which can irritate and inflame the gums. If gum disease is not treated, it can lead to tooth loss.

There are two main types of gum disease: gingivitis and periodontitis.

  • Gingivitis is a mild form of gum disease that only affects the gums.
  • Periodontitis is a more severe form of gum disease that can damage the bone surrounding the teeth.


If gingivitis isn’t treated, it can lead to periodontitis. Periodontitis occurs when the inflammation of your gums leads to the breakdown of the connective tissue that supports your teeth.

The breakdown of this tissue causes pockets (spaces) to form between your teeth and gums. These pockets collect plaque and provide hiding places for bacteria.

As periodontitis progresses, the bone around your teeth can break down, and your teeth may eventually become loose and need to be removed.

Gum disease is usually caused by poor oral hygiene. Brushing and flossing regularly can help remove plaque from the teeth and prevent gum disease.

Other factors that may contribute to gum disease include:

  • Smoking
  • Diabetes
  • Stress
  • Genetic predisposition
  • And certain medications

Symptoms of gum disease

  • Bleeding from gums
  • Bad breath
  • Loose teeth
  • Creation of pockets between teeth & gums


Bad breath

Bad breath, also known as halitosis, can be embarrassing and tough to deal with.

The good news is that there are things you can do to combat bad breath. The first step is understanding the causes of bad breath.

There are a number of different factors that can contribute to bad breath.

  • Poor dental hygiene is one of the most common causes. If you don’t brush and floss regularly, food particles can remain in your mouth and lead to bad breath.
  • Another cause of bad breath is dry mouth. When your mouth doesn’t have enough saliva, it can create an environment where bacteria thrive, leading to bad breath.
  • Certain foods can also cause bad breath. Foods like garlic and onions contain sulfur compounds that are released into your bloodstream and then expelled through your lungs, causing your breath to smell bad.
  • Smoking is another culprit when it comes to bad breath. Not only does smoking leave a lingering smell on your clothing and skin, but it also dries out your mouth, which as we now know, can lead to bad breath.
  • There are a number of medical conditions that can cause bad breath as well.
  • Gum disease is one example. When plaque builds up on teeth, it can cause inflammation of the gums which leads to bad breath.
  • Sinus infections and post-nasal drip can also be responsible for temporary bouts of bad breath.


Sensitive teeth

There are many reasons why people have sensitive teeth. It could be due to gum disease, tooth decay, or the wearing down of the enamel.

Gums disease

Sensitivity of the teeth may occur when the gums pull away from the teeth & causing the root surface to expose.

As the roots of your teeth are not covered with enamel, they are much more sensitive than the rest of your teeth.

Gum recession can be caused by aggressive brushing, periodontal disease, or simply aging.

Sensitive teeth can also be a sign of bruxism, which is when people grind their teeth.

If you have sensitive teeth, it’s important to see a dentist to find out the cause and get treatment. There are many ways to treat sensitive teeth, such as using special toothpaste or getting bonding.


Cracked or broken teeth

There are many reasons why teeth can become cracked or broken.

  • One common reason is due to chewing on hard objects such as ice or hard candy. This can put stress on the teeth and cause them to crack or break.
  • Another reason is due to tooth decay. When the enamel of the tooth breaks down, it can become weak and susceptible to cracking or breaking.
  • Trauma to the mouth can also cause teeth to crack or break. This can happen from a fall, a blow to the face, or even clenching or grinding your teeth.

If you have any concerns about your teeth, be sure to talk to your dentist.


Root infection

Dental root infections occur when bacteria enter the tooth through a crack or cavity and reaches the pulp.

The pulp is the innermost layer of the tooth which contains blood vessels, nerves, and connective tissue.

When this tissue becomes infected, it can cause severe pain, swelling, and damage to the tooth. Root canal therapy is usually required to treat a dental root infection.

There are several causes of dental root infections.

  • The most common cause is untreated cavities or tooth decay. When decay is not removed from the tooth, it can progress to the pulp and eventually lead to an infection.
  • Other causes include cracked teeth, trauma to the tooth, and gum disease. Gum disease can cause the gums to recede, exposing more of the tooth root which makes it more susceptible to infection.

If you think you may have a dental root infection, it is important to see your dentist as soon as possible for treatment. untreated infections can lead to serious complications such as abscesses, bone loss, and even death.


Enamel erosion

The enamel on our teeth is constantly under attack from the acids in the food and drinks we consume. This can lead to a condition called tooth erosion, where the enamel is slowly worn away.

There are a few different reasons why this might happen.

  • First, if you have a diet that’s high in acidic foods and drinks, this can contribute to enamel erosion.
  • Also, if you don’t brush your teeth regularly or properly, this can also lead to the build-up of plaque and tartar, which can then eat away at the enamel.

Tooth erosion is a serious problem because once the enamel is gone, it’s very difficult to replace. This can lead to sensitivity and pain when eating or drinking hot or cold beverages.

In severe cases, it can even lead to tooth loss.

If you think you might be suffering from tooth erosion, it’s important to see your dentist as soon as possible. They will be able to diagnose the problem and recommend treatment options to help protect your teeth from further damage.


Teeth grinding

Many people suffer from a dental problem known as teeth grinding, or bruxism.

This condition can cause a great deal of pain and damage to the teeth. Teeth grinding is often caused by stress or anxiety, and it can also be a side effect of certain medications.

Treatment for teeth grinding typically involves wearing a mouth guard at night to protect the teeth from further damage.

In some cases, therapy may also be recommended to help relieve the underlying stress or anxiety that is causing the bruxism


Dry mouth

A dry mouth, also called xerostomia, is a condition where there isn’t enough saliva in your mouth. It can be caused by certain medical conditions, medications, or simply by not drinking enough fluids.

Dry mouth can be a nuisance, but it can also lead to more serious problems like an increased risk of tooth decay and infection.

There are many possible causes of dry mouth.

  • Some medical conditions, such as diabetes and Sjogren’s syndrome, can cause dry mouth by affecting the glands that produce saliva.
  • Other conditions, such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease, can cause dry mouth by affecting the nerves that control saliva production.
  • Medications that can cause dry mouth include antihistamines, decongestants, painkillers, and diuretics.
  • Dry mouth can also be caused by lifestyle choices like smoking or drinking alcohol. These habits can damage the salivary glands and reduce saliva production.
  • Additionally, people who don’t drink enough fluids during the day may experience dry mouth. This is especially common in hot weather or during exercise when you lose fluids through sweating.

A dry mouth is usually not a serious problem, but it can be uncomfortable and lead to other problems like bad breath or difficulty eating.

If you’re experiencing dry mouth, try to drink more fluids during the day and avoid tobacco and alcohol use.

If your dry mouth persists despite these measures, talk to your doctor about other possible treatments.



There are many different causes of toothache, and it can be a very frustrating and painful experience.

It is important to see a dentist if you are experiencing a toothache, as they will be able to diagnose the cause and provide treatment.

One of the most common causes of toothache is dental decay. This is when the enamel on your teeth begins to break down, which can lead to pain and sensitivity.

Dental decay is usually caused by poor oral hygiene, sugary drinks, or acidic foods. If caught early, dental decay can be treated with fillings or other restorative treatments.

Another common cause of toothache is gum disease.

This is an infection of the gums that can cause inflammation, bleeding, and pain. Gum disease is often caused by plaque build-up, so it is important to brush and floss regularly to prevent it.

If you have gum disease, your dentist may recommend a deep cleaning or other treatment options.

Toothache can also be caused by TMJ (temporomandibular joint) disorder. This disorder affects the joints that connect your jaw to your skull, and it can cause pain in your teeth and jaw.

TMJ disorder is often caused by stress or misalignment of the jaw, so treatment may involve relaxation techniques or orthodontic treatment.

If you are experiencing a toothache, it is important to see a dentist as soon as possible so that they can diagnose and treat the affected tooth or teeth.


Stained teeth

Stained teeth can be a real problem. Not only are they unsightly, but they can also be a sign of poor dental hygiene.

There are a number of different things that can cause stained teeth, and it is important to be aware of them so that you can avoid the problem.

  • One of the most common causes of stained teeth is smoking. The nicotine and tar in cigarettes stain the teeth and make them yellow or brown. If you smoke, it is important to brush your teeth regularly and see your dentist for regular cleanings to prevent the problem from getting worse.
  • Another cause of stained teeth is eating certain foods and drinks that can stain the enamel. Coffee, tea, and red wine are all culprits when it comes to staining teeth. If you enjoy these beverages, be sure to brush your teeth afterward to avoid staining.
  • Poor dental hygiene habits can also lead to stained teeth. If you don’t brush and floss regularly, plaque and tartar can build up on your teeth and cause them to become discoloured.

Be sure to visit your dentist at least twice a year for a professional cleaning to remove any build-up on your teeth.

If you have stained teeth, there are a few things you can do to try to improve the situation. You can brush with baking soda or whitening toothpaste, or you can have your teeth professionally whitened by your dentist.


Impacted teeth

Impacted teeth are a common oral health problem, particularly among adolescents.

An impacted tooth is one that has not erupted through the gum tissue and into the mouth. This can happen when there is not enough room in the mouth for the tooth to erupt, or if the tooth is blocked by another tooth.

Impacted teeth can cause a number of problems, including pain, infection, and damage to adjacent teeth.

Treatment for an impacted tooth may involve surgically exposing the tooth and then orthodontically aligning it with the rest of the teeth.

In some cases, an impacted tooth may need to be removed.


Too many teeth: Hyperdontia

Hyperdontia is a condition characterized by the presence of too many teeth.

The exact cause of hypodontia is unknown, but it is believed to be a genetic condition. In most cases, the extra teeth are harmless and do not require treatment.

However, in some cases, the extra teeth can cause problems with biting or chewing, and may need to be removed by a dentist.


Crooked teeth

Crooked teeth are quite common and can be caused by a number of different factors.

  • One of the most common causes is genetics, as many people inherit crooked teeth from their parents.
  • Other common causes include incorrect jaw alignment, thumb sucking, and injury to the mouth or teeth.
  • Crooked teeth can also be caused by certain medical conditions, such as cleft palate. While crooked teeth may not be aesthetically pleasing, they do not usually cause any health problems.

However, if the teeth are severely misaligned, it can affect a person’s ability to bite and chew properly, which can lead to digestive problems.

In very rare cases, extremely crooked teeth can also cause speech impairments. If you are concerned about your crooked teeth, consult your dentist or orthodontist for treatment options.


Gap between teeth

Gaps between teeth, also called diastema, is a condition where there is a space between two teeth.

The most common cause of gaps between the teeth is incorrect bite alignment, which means that the upper and lower jaws don’t line up properly. This can be due to genetics, injury, or thumb-sucking.

Other causes of gaps between teeth include missing teeth and tooth decay.

Ultimately, the best way to treat gap teeth is to consult with an orthodontist to find the best course of action for your specific case.


Wisdom teeth problems

Wisdom teeth, also called third molars, are the last teeth to erupt in your mouth. The age when they appear is between 17 and 25.

While most people do not face any problem with their wisdom teeth while they erupt, but for a few individuals, wisdom teeth can cause a number of problems.

An impacted wisdom tooth is one that doesn’t have enough room to erupt or that is growing in at an angle.

When this happens, the tooth can become trapped (impacted) in the jawbone or gums. This can cause pain, infection, and other problems.

If you have an impacted wisdom tooth & that is creating problems for you, your dentist or oral surgeon may recommend removing it.

Impacted wisdom teeth that are left untreated can lead to serious problems, including:

  • Pain
  • Infection
  • Cysts (fluid-filled sacs)
  • Tumors
  • Damage to adjacent teeth
  • Gum disease